Oak, mahogany, walnut, pine, rosewood, maple, elm you may well have some or all of these woods in your property. But, do you know how to convey to the distinction among the them? In this month’s column, we are going to chat about the diverse types of wooden that are frequently found in antique furniture and some typical ornamental treatments.
The Fundamental principles
Wood is tough or delicate. When I say tough, I imply that the wooden is dense, whilst, a delicate wooden is supple. A great trick to convey to the distinction amongst tough and delicate wooden is that if you press your fingernail into a delicate wooden such as pine, it leaves an indentation. But, this does not transpire with a tough wooden such as oak.
Wood is coarse-grain or near-grain. In coarse-grain wooden, the age rings in the wooden are far a element, providing it an uneven visual appearance. In near-grain woods, the age rings in the wooden are very near together, providing it a sleek, fragile visual appearance.
Sometimes, wooden is stained. Lighter woods such as oak, elm and maple can be stained to resemble a darker mahogany or rosewood.
Some woods (mahogany, rosewood, burl walnut) are perceived to be much more valuable than other woods (elm, maple, spruce). The reason for this is availability. Woods that want to be imported are much more costly than property-grown woods. Woods that are abundant are not as costly as woods that are scarce.
Oak is a coarse-grain tough wooden identified in Europe and North The usa. Commencing in 17th century Europe, oak was utilized to make furniture identified throughout the property. There are many varieties together with purple oak and white oak. Youthful oak is pale in coloration. But, around time and with polishing, oak darkens into a loaded brown coloration.
Mahogany is a near-grain tough wooden indigenous to northern and central South The usa and the West Indies. Mahogany was a popular selection in England throughout the mid-18th century for good furniture generating. It is a dark purple coloration from time to time, nonetheless, it is dark brown. Purple mahogany is identified in the West Indies and brown mahogany is indigenous to South The usa. Mahogany furniture proceeds to be appealing now.
Rosewood is a near-grain tough wooden indigenous to India, South The usa and the West Indies. Rosewood is named for the rose scent that releases when it is lower. Once in a while, I discover that folks confuse rosewood and mahogany. Equally woods can be purple in coloration. Even so, when you seem closely at rosewood, you can expect to see good black (and from time to time white) rings that are not present in mahogany. A further trick to convey to if an product is rosewood is to choose it up. Rosewood is a very weighty wooden, heavier than mahogany. In the 17th century China, rosewood was a popular selection for good furniture makers. As effectively, in 19th century Europe, it was utilized to construct improved-high quality furniture for good residences.
Walnut is near-grain tough wooden identified in Europe and North The usa. The coloration varies from light-weight to a very loaded golden brown coloration and it is not uncommon to discover walnut stained to seem like mahogany. Sometimes, disorder leads to the sudden. Burl walnut, the most prized variety of walnut, benefits from a disorder that attacks the tree causing a gorgeous scrolled, near-grain. These days you see the seem of burl walnut replicated in the plastic interiors of some better finish autos.
Pine is a pale, knotted delicate wooden with a wide, straight grain. It grows in Europe and North The usa. Pine was often utilized in furniture intended to be painted. Day to day furniture – kitchen tables and chairs -ended up often created from pine.
Maple & Elm
Maple and elm are coarse-grain tough woods identified in North The usa and Europe. They ended up often utilized in utilitarian furniture. Generally a veneer of a finer wooden was utilized to these woods.
Veneering is a method where by a very slim sheet of a much more costly wooden is glued to a less costly wooden. Working with less costly woods such as elm and maple and adding a much more costly mahogany or walnut veneer permitted furniture makers to supply furniture that was very affordable for a more substantial clientele. You may well listen to an antique supplier say “This table is walnut on maple.” The supplier signifies that the product has a walnut veneer and underneath the precise product is maple. A walnut on maple table is less valuable than a solid walnut table.
How do you convey to if your furniture is veneered? Seem at the edges of the piece. If you see what appears to be a seam, it is veneered. On the other hand, if the edges of the piece are seamless, it is solid.
Early veneers from the 17th century ended up hand-lower, so they could be uneven. But, in the 19th century veneers began to be lower by machine. This permitted the veneers to be lower very slim and even. Dependent on the way the wooden is lower, veneering makes diverse consequences. Butterfly veneering happens when two opposing finish grain veneers are diagonally lower from a branch. They are utilized to mirror each other.
Marquetry is a method where by various types of wooden are utilized to a floor to develop a photograph. Bouquets and birds ended up often the subjects. Exotic woods such as ebony, satinwood and tulipwood ended up often utilized.
The distinction amongst marquetry and parquetry is the topic make a difference. Parquetry is a veneer that takes advantage of geometric designs. Nowadays, you see it in parquet hardwood floors and ornate chess and backgammon boards.
Inlay is a ornamental cure where by elements other than wooden are lower into a design and style. Inlays ended up often created of bone, ivory, mom of pearl, brass, tortoise shell. Marquetry, parquetry and inlay to start with appeared throughout the Italian Renaissance.
Gilding is a method whereby gold leaf is utilized with gesso (a plaster-like material) to wooden. It is really ornamental and was popular throughout the Italian Renaissance and the Louis period in France.
Resource by Protechwood