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August 10, 2015

Protechwood – Whole Concrete Housing Engineering Examination

Style and design, content and element assortment.

The Style and design.

The most effective design and style for the framework, (to guarantee compatibility for design and style, current market acceptance as very well as accurate check benefits), is to be a compact household full with basement, concentrating on the reduced to mid revenue bracket.


Sophisticated Materials to be applied in the framework involve current products and solutions this sort of as ICF wall procedure, basement insulated slab on quality procedure, composite concrete intermediate floor procedure, Higher overall performance, twin glazed, reduced-E and argon loaded windows, with exterior stucco and cultured stone devices.

New systems produced involve A hybrid ICF composite concrete cast in location roof forming procedure making use of both Formtech and Speedfloor components. A simplified radiant in floor heating procedure. Earth coupled geothermal drinking water to drinking water hydronic heating/cooling procedure, making use of passive soils heat transfer techniques to lower loop lengths, and engineered soils to enhance overall performance. An superior air separator cleaning unit and clean air electricity restoration ventilation procedure full with an integral mid volume air conditioning procedure.

New techniques of set up which include external vibration techniques making use of new technological innovation. Much more successful design and style and detailing techniques. Introduction of new set up techniques, which simplify and demystify the processes associated in the construction. Multi operate or merged construction tasking, which blend two or more tasks into 1. Reduced working experience and awareness prerequisites by successful content assortment, management practices, design and style, detailing, and scheduling.

Requirements integrated in design and style and produced products and solutions and/or strategies

In excess of the last several years we have accrued details and investigation into the demands of the setting up current market location, and decided that the subsequent base conditions for all products and solutions would have to be tackled within just the design and style and/or construction of the setting up.

one. Expense. All round, the cost of resources and/or labor would have to guarantee that the existing construction techniques involved with ICF construction would have to reduce the total cost of the setting up by the offset cost of making use of these kinds of products and solutions installed to existing standards.

2. Performance. The content and labor components should comply with effectiveness in design and style to lower construction time, and lower content prerequisites by a undetermined appropriate degree. Substance components really should carry out two or more construction or setting up functions per merchandise, or blend quite a few features demanded into the design and style, this sort of as continue to be in location formwork.

3. Solutions of construction. The techniques of construction should simplify the construction system, permitting reduced talent labor to be utilized successfully.

4. Top quality of construction. The Top quality of the setting up should be elevated to fulfill the new issues of a present day planet which include Longevity, sturdiness, power, esthetics, procedure, sort and operate.

5. Compatibility. The setting up should be manufactured in this sort of a subject as to be similar in sort and operate with existing residential structures.

six. Versatility. Any standard residential framework should be ready to be built and created with the devices and techniques, to guarantee compliance with existing designs in the construction market.

seven. Requirements and shortfalls. The setting up has to handle most, if not all, of the existing demands and current shortfalls in residential dwellings.

eight. electricity-successful. Vitality prerequisites really should fulfill or exceed, even the maximum standards of existing construction resources and techniques.

9. Environmental Pleasant. The resources and techniques really should handle as quite a few environmental criteria as possible, which include squander, electricity demanded for creation of resources, and electricity demanded for construction. Small environmental influence products and solutions and techniques of construction would be a should.

ten. Production capacity. All products and solutions and current labor markets should be ready to be conveniently adapted to fulfill the demands for construction of properties of this form.

All resources and components as very well as the producers have been picked centered on the product’s potential in speed, sturdiness, workability, good quality, power, warranties and current market acceptance from current raw resources and/or processes.

Heat decline.

Part variables

Roof effectiveness.

Existing electricity efficiencies for ICF wall devices rate about thirty% more helpful in all round heating and cooling when merged with existing standards of wood truss roof set up and slab on quality basement installations. Knowing that the existing electricity loss’s in a heating climate for walls in residential structures is about 23% of the all round decline of a household, and the roof representing about forty two% of the all round heat decline, I am assuming the subsequent: forty two% (total roof decline on a standard household)/ 23% (total wall decline on standard household)X thirty% (the identified effectiveness of ICF walls only on a household) really should in theory enhance the effectiveness of the above slab thermal envelope by about 54.seventy eight%.

This assuming comparative R-worth increases, merged with minimized air infiltration and thermal conductance attribute variations involved with ICF construction.

Underneath quality and below Slab effectiveness.

Although smaller, below quality and below slab loss’s do depend in the all round setting up heat decline, and typically stand for about seven% of the total heat decline on the setting up. This can be minimized substantially by the use of helpful drainage of floor drinking water, the inclusion of foil protected Expanded Polystyrene insulation to isolate the slab from the floor as very well as ICF construction for the basement walls. By which include 4″ of EPS foam, a reflective layer of foil, and helpful subsurface drainage, we can enhance the effectiveness of slab on grades and below quality places by about sixty seven% above the existing accepted normal of six mil polyethylene sheets only. Assuming these quantities to be accurate, we can involve the subsequent, seven% (total heat decline by the sub framework place) X sixty seven% (helpful enhance in thermal overall performance of the slab) = 4.69% (total extra cost savings all round to the heat decline attributes). Introducing this to the above slab thermal envelope effectiveness, we now have a setting up which is 59.47% more helpful than normal construction techniques.

Window/Door variables.

Outdoors troubles, this sort of as windows and doors have an all round heat decline attribute of about 17% on the total household, by infiltration, decline/get and conductance. Generally by incorporating a greater good quality window, created with decrease air infiltration rates. Much less thermal conductance and the inclusion of affordable reduced E glass with Argon gas among two thermal panes. Existing scientific tests and exams confirm that these kinds of windows and doors enhance the thermal overall performance of this sort of units by about thirty%. On a household, this a reasonably higher issue outside of normal construction, thanks to the considerable use of window place in design and style. We will be assuming standard use of about fifteen% of wall place. Assuming these quantities to be suitable, we can, in theory say that 17% (heat decline by windows and doors in normal construction) X thirty% (enhance in overall performance of greater good quality windows) = 5.ten% (cost savings in heat decline for new framework). Introducing this to total thermal envelope effectiveness, we now have a setting up which is sixty four.fifty seven% more helpful than normal construction techniques.

All round variables.

Standard Ventilation variables

Ventilation variables of.3 air changes per hour are a normal code need. Present standards of construction reach this by the use of exhaust enthusiasts or air changers. The proposed normal will involve a higher-effectiveness, twin main procedure from NuTech, which operates to successfully offer.3 air changes per hour with 87% helpful heat restoration from the exhaust air. Knowing that the mechanical ventilation accounts for about eight.5% of the total decline to the setting up, we can successfully suppose the subsequent. eight.5% (mechanical ventilation decline to setting up) X 87% (effectiveness of Heat Restoration Ventilation unit applied) = seven.39% (enhance of overall performance for air trade. Introducing this to the above effectiveness, we now have a setting up which is 71.ninety six% more helpful than normal construction techniques.

Radiant heating.

More electricity cost savings, in the heating climate which would have a considerable influence on the research, involve Radiant Heating and higher-effectiveness boilers, by a hydronic set up, which is supported by current scientific tests to enhance electricity efficiencies about twenty% all round. The base theory to guidance this the effectiveness of radiant heat above convected or executed heat transfer to occupants of properties. Getting this issue into account in a ratio for standard construction and the proposed ICF shell, twenty% (representing normal construction techniques helpful reduction in heat prerequisites) X (100% – 71.ninety six%) = 28.04% (representing remaining electricity demanded by incorporating ICF envelope) = a even more 5.sixty one% in total electricity cost savings by the use of radiant technological innovation. This equates to 77.fifty seven% total electricity cost savings integrated in the calculations.

Thermal Mass and Heat Storage

By making use of a compromise, the household is built to consider benefit of off-peak heating by the use of concrete in the framework. Successfully, the setting up would be making use of the off-peak hours to retail store heat electricity in the thermal mass of the concrete floors, for daytime use. This to be realized only by the use of programmable thermostats, which would retail store heat in the concrete slabs in the course of the early morning hours. The all round effectiveness is now undetermined.

Geothermal Applications.

By means of the use of passive photo voltaic collectors, installed below the roof shingles, and integral with the ICF roof assembly, on hotter winter season days, photo voltaic heated drinking water would be applied in a closed parallel loop to enhance the geothermal mattress temperatures, therefore successfully storing heat for afterwards use in the floor. Throughout summertime months, the exact same parallel loop, will employ rain drinking water and cooler nighttime temperatures, in an exertion to lower floor temperatures. In excess of the loops, a new product or service, “InsulTarp” will be installed to protect against excessive loss’s to the earth surface. This currently being studied in an exertion to lower trench depths, and loop lengths from the existing normal, as very well as enhance effectiveness of the geothermal heat pump procedure. All round effectiveness is now undetermined.

Geothermal units function substantially more efficiently as the load decreases on the unit. When any fluid content, (which include air which functions in the exact same way as a fluid) necessitates a substantial delta T temperature enhance, (the variation among the return fluid temperature and the supplied fluid temperature) a geothermal heat pump has to work really tough to pump ample heat to offer the need, so the effectiveness of the unit drops. This called the COP or “coefficient of overall performance”. Most geothermal units function with a heating COP of about 3. What the COP represents is the comparison of the all round electricity output from the unit, above the electricity enter to the unit. A COP rating of 3, indicates that for each individual one unit of electricity or “watt” we place into the geothermal heat pump, we get 3 watts of heat out of it.

Now here is where it changes when we blend it with ultra successful structures, hydronic in floor heating and thermal mass.

The substantially decrease heat decline of the setting up, indicates a decrease Btu output per square foot of floor place, In the scenario of some of our investigation structures, this equates to about ten-13 BTU per square foot in places this sort of as Michigan Usa and Ontario Canada. Now, drinking water entering the radiant procedure of a concrete floor, demands only be seventy six degrees F to keep a 71 diploma F temperature for the occupants. This indicates that the radiant procedure only demands to offer a six diploma temperature rise. This indicates that the coupled geothermal procedure now only demands to combat a heat force variation (for deficiency of a improved term) of only 5 degrees F as a substitute of a standard fifty diploma rise for non concrete, radiant devices. Much less temperature variation indicates more effectiveness as the geothermal procedure will work considerably less, to generate more. An simpler way to search at is to think of drinking water, in which substantially greater volumes can be moved a compact vertical length with the exact same volume of electricity, as in contrast to a substantial vertical length. Much more drinking water per electricity unit can be moved, ergo a geothermal procedure can shift more heat per electricity unit. COP scores up to ten can be realized.

This indicates that by setting up with concrete, and incorporating fantastic design and style and content options, we can lengthen the effectiveness of geothermal heat pump devices to get efficiencies 2 to 3 moments that of current geothermal pump abilities.

Power and sturdiness.


As the overall shell, which include all interior structural components consist of metal bolstered concrete, identified to be substantially more robust and more resistant to active loading circumstances. Typically, the components applied have demonstrated, by current engineering, testing and assessment to far outperform normal construction techniques when subjected to dynamic masses experienced from earthquakes, tornadoes, projectiles etcetera. Because of to the reduced hazard of content failure, the occupants can love a harmless setting, and the framework will not likely endure hurt in the event of this sort of all-natural or mechanical damages, which other structures are likely to fail at.

Used independently, each procedure suffers from weak connections, this sort of as the ICF wall with a truss roof, in which the roof becomes separated from the framework thanks to uplift, exposing the interior. Although this check product does not include a product or service line of windows and doors, built to face up to these kinds of occurrences, they are now currently being created. The hope is that 1 day we could be ready to see the benefits from this form of construction, when which include windows and doors with comparatively higher power scores. This determination was produced on analysis of the spot in which this household was to be created, in which it would be impractical to involve. Future scientific tests of this technological innovation really should be integrated in a coastal framework in the condition of Florida, for a more accurate investigation into these kinds of components.

It is proposed that the ICF walls, in existence today are about ten moments more robust than normal wood body construction techniques, it could be harmless to suppose, that the roof procedure could now have that exact same capacity.


All of the properties structural components are of concrete and metal. It is identified that bolstered concrete is genuinely able of spanning quite a few generations. Although it is not identified as as to the all round daily life expectancy of concrete, quite a few scientists have proposed durations in surplus of 5,000 several years. The secondary insulating element, Expanded Polystyrene, in a non-degradable plastic element, in which it is envisioned to last quite a few hundred if not 1000’s of several years, if suitably secured from Extremely Violet breakdown. As all of the EPS foam which is in the setting up is protected and secured from both this and mechanical hurt, we can securely suppose that the daily life of the framework would be in surplus of 100 several years. Potentially it could be equal to that of the concrete, which is envisioned to be quite a few thousand.

The exterior stucco and stone coverings are extremely resilient. Using Acrylic stucco compounds, these deal with coverings are virtually impervious to degradation and breakdown, while they could be subject to mechanical hurt, as they are exposed. Nonetheless, these kinds of end resources are conveniently repaired or replaced, and can be maintained with substantially decrease cost/yr ratios than wood, vinyl or aluminum. By changing the shingles with very long-lasting Acrylic stuccos, which are also extremely resistant to the consequences of acid rain or frost motion, we can lengthen the daily life of the roof finishes very well further than those people of normal asphalt shingles. The stuccos longevity is even more increased as the ICF base construction on which it is applied is not only an ideal substrate, having said that it is dimensionally stable in the course of temperature and humidity shifts.

Mechanical Considerations.

Although the strengths of the mechanical components are reasonably unimportant, sturdiness troubles this sort of as usable daily life span are reflective principally of the have on and tear of the components. These units are envisioned to last a reasonably small duration, as in contrast to the setting up alone, and basically really should be replaced periodically as more recent and more successful units or indicates grow to be readily available. Nonetheless, existing technological innovation has expanded to involve this sort of products as Heat Get well Ventilators, Air Cleaners, higher-effectiveness boiler devices, and radiant heating devices which are both electricity-successful as very well as cost-helpful to set up and function. Most importantly, they devices need to have to be de-mystified and standardized sufficiently to not only function properly, having said that allow for for considerably less difficult set up techniques and resources, and make the systems simpler for the general public to accessibility.

Future Development.

This original framework will employ components which are readily readily available in the market to reach the primary framework and mechanical criteria, by modification of this sort of products and solutions or techniques. It is forecasted that this framework will cost fourteen.six% more than an equal framework created to code standards for wood body construction. Because of to the charges involved with prototype production for solitary project reasons of some components, this forecasted shortfall really should conveniently be minimized. The projected forecast, after all production and standardization is in location for the products and solutions and techniques of set up, is projected to be at or below the cost of wood body code construction.

The benefits involved with this form of setting up really should not be compromised as a end result. We are expecting that as products and solutions and people grow to be more readily readily available, that cost competitiveness will lower the prototype properties construction charges sufficiently. Current market acceptance really should be reasonably fantastic, as there are no detracting characteristics or issues involved with successful properties this sort of as dome structures or plastic properties. The final product or service will present alone esthetically and functionally, similar to existing residential structures.

Resource by Protechwood

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Building 1, Huamao Building, Wenchang Road 1, Guangdong, China
+86(752) 2222-845